Current IoT services that require trade-offs in performance to obtain the best performance from current wireless technologies (3G, 4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc.) and now 5G Technology, the design of 5G networks will bring large-scale IoT Desired level of performance. It will make possible a ubiquitous, connected world.
8 specifications to drive 5G technology
- Up to 10Gbps data rates-> 10 to 100 times faster than 4G and 4.5G networks
- 1 ms delay
- 1000 times the bandwidth per unit area
- Compared with 4G LTE, 5G can connect up to 100 times more devices per unit area than 4G
- 99.999% availability
- 100% coverage
- Reduce network energy use by 90%
- 10-year battery life for low-power IoT devices
How fast will 5G be adopted?
The expected adoption rate of 5G is very different from the previous generations of networks (3G, 4G): the previous technology is driven by the use of mobile Internet and “killer applications”. 5G is expected to be mainly driven by new IoT uses, such as the People driving vehicles.
Given the new perspective of using broadband connectivity, some equipment vendors such as Ericsson predict that the number of 5G connected devices will exceed 150 million within 12 months of the network’s release.
Traditional mobile Internet will combine various LTE network coverage. GSMA predicts that the following penetration targets will be achieved by 2020
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Development Background of 5G Technology
n recent years, the fifth generation of mobile communication systems, 5G, has become a hot topic for discussion in the communications industry and academia. The development of 5G has two main driving forces. On the one hand, the fourth-generation mobile communication system, 4G, represented by long-term evolution technology, has been fully commercialized, and the discussion of next-generation technology has been put on the agenda. On the other hand, the demand for mobile data has exploded and it is difficult for existing mobile communication systems to meet the future. Demand, there is an urgent need to develop a new generation of 5G systems.
The development of 5G also comes from the growing demand for mobile data. With the development of the mobile Internet, more and more devices are connected to the mobile network, and new services and applications are emerging. Global mobile broadband users are expected to reach 9 billion in 2018. By 2020, it is expected that the capacity of mobile communication networks will need 1000 times to increase in current network capacity.
The surge in mobile data traffic will pose severe challenges to the network. First, if the current mobile communication network develops, it is difficult for the capacity to support the growth of thousands of times of traffic, and the network energy consumption and bit cost are difficult to bear Traffic growth will inevitably bring further demand for spectrum, while mobile communication spectrum is scarce, and available spectrum has a large span and fragmented distribution, which makes it difficult to achieve efficient use of spectrum.
In addition, to increase network capacity, intelligent and efficient use of network resources must be made, such as Intelligent optimization of business and user’s personality, but this capability is insufficient; finally, the future network will inevitably be a heterogeneous mobile network with multiple networks coexisting.
To increase network capacity, we must solve the efficient management of each network, simplify interoperability, and enhance users. Problems of experience. In order to solve the above challenges and meet the increasing demand for mobile traffic, it is urgent to develop a new generation of 5G mobile communication networks
5G mobile networks are the same as early 2G, 3G, and 4G mobile networks. 5G networks are digital cellular networks. In this network, the service area covered by the provider is divided into many small geographic areas called cellular. The analog signal of the image is digitized in the mobile phone, converted by an analog-to-digital converter and transmitted as a stream.
All 5G wireless devices in the cell communicate via radio waves with the local antenna array and low-power automatic transceivers (transmitters and receivers) in the cell. The transceiver allocates channels from a common frequency pool, which can be reused in geographically separated cells.
The local antenna is connected to the telephone network and the Internet via a high-bandwidth fiber optic or wireless backhaul connection. As with existing phones, when users traverse from one cell to another, their mobile device will automatically “switch” to the antenna in the new cell
The main advantage of 5G networks is that the data transmission rate is much higher than the previous cellular network, up to 10Gbit / s, faster than the current wired Internet, and 100 times faster than the previous 4G LTE cellular network. Another advantage is lower network latency (faster response time), less than 1 millisecond, and 4G is 30-70 milliseconds.
Due to faster data transmission, 5G networks will not only provide services only for mobile phones but will also become general home and office network providers, competing with cable network providers.
Previous cellular networks provided low data rate Internet access for mobile phones, but a cell phone tower could not economically provide sufficient bandwidth as a general Internet provider for home computers
Challenges and solutions: building a future 5G network
After deployment, 5G networks should provide higher speeds and capacities to support large-scale machine-to-machine communications and provide low-latency (delay), high-reliability services for time-critical applications. Based on the trials to date, 5G networks have begun to show high performance in different scenarios, such as dense urban areas and indoor hotspots.
Although the goals are ambitious, 5G networks also face considerable challenges. 5G promises increased capacity and data rates that require more spectrum and more efficient spectrum technology, which is beyond the scope of current 3G and 4G systems.
Some of this extra spectrum comes from bands above 24 GHz, which poses considerable challenges. The first challenge is the inherent propagation characteristics inherent in millimeter waves. These radio waves travel much shorter distances than the mid-band (1-6 GHz) and the low-band (below 1 GHz).
Therefore, covering a specific area will require a significant increase in base stations, which will increase the complexity of the infrastructure, including the need to deploy radio equipment such as traffic lights, lamp posts, power poles, and power equipment on-street facilities.
Another challenge involves the 5G connection link between the base station and the core network (backhaul), which depends on both fiber technology and wireless technology. The implementation of fiber optic services and ensuring the availability of wireless backhaul solutions (such as microwave and satellite links) with sufficient capacity, as well as the deployment of high-altitude platform (HAPS) systems for these solutions, require significant work.
In addition, the spectrum is a scarce and invaluable resource, and spectrum competition is fierce at the national, regional and international levels and it is increasing. Since the radio frequency spectrum is divided into frequency bands allocated to different radio communication services, each frequency band can only be used by services that can coexist with each other without causing harmful interference to adjacent services.
ITU-R studies are designed to examine sharing and compatibility between the mobile service and several other existing radiocommunication services, particularly in the areas of satellite communications, weather forecasts, monitoring of Earth resources and climate change, and radio astronomy.
National and international rules need to be adopted and applied globally to avoid interference between 5G and these services, and to create a viable mobile ecosystem for the future, while reducing prices through economies of scale in global markets, and achieving interoperability and roaming. Therefore, it is important to determine the additional spectrum used by 5G and possibly unify it at the global and regional levels. For similar reasons, the radio technology used in 5G equipment needs to be supported by a globally unified standard
Network characteristics of 5G Technology
The peak rate needs to reach the Gbit / s standard to meet the large data transmission such as high-definition video and virtual reality. The air interface delay level needs to be around 1ms to meet real-time applications such as autonomous driving and telemedicine.
Large network capacity, providing the connection capability of hundreds of billions of devices to meet the Internet of Things communication. The spectral efficiency is improved by more than 10 times than LTE. With continuous wide area coverage and high mobility, the user experience rate reaches 100Mbit / s. The traffic density and connection number density have been greatly improved.
The system is collaborative and the level of intelligence is improved. It is manifested in the multi-user, multi-point, multi-antenna, multi-ingestion collaborative networking, and flexible automatic adjustment between networks.
The above is the key that 5G is different from previous generations of mobile communications. It is the result of the gradual shift from mobile technology to user-centric mobile communication.
ITU plays a leading role in managing the radio frequency spectrum and developing the globally applicable IMT-2020 standard. Its activities support the development and implementation of international rules and standards to ensure that 5G networks are secure, interoperable, and will not cause or be harmful to adjacent services when operating.
Based on its experience in designing International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) standards in the 2G, 3G ,and 4G fields, ITU is convening leading engineers and experts in mobile and fixed backhaul technologies to work on 5G and future generations of mobile broadband services.
Under ITU’s IMT-2020 plan, ITU members are developing international standards to achieve 5G networks with good performance.
At the World Radiocommunication Conference 2019, delegates identified additional radio frequency bands for International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT). This will help the development of 5th generation (5G) mobile networks while identifying the 24.25 – 27.5 GHz, 37 – 43.5 GHz, 45.5 – 47 GHz, 47.2 – 48.2 GHz and 66 – 71 GHz bands for 5G networks. deploy. WRC-19 has also taken measures to ensure adequate protection of the Earth exploration-satellite service in adjacent frequency bands, including meteorological and other passive services.
5G trials have already begun in several countries and results are being evaluated. In many parts of the world, 5G deployment strategies have been established. Some regulators are already auctioning licenses to operate 5G networks in the bands allocated to land mobile services by the Radio Regulations (RR). The first full commercial deployment of 5G is expected to take place sometime after the finalization of IMT-2020 specifications
Is 5G technology safe?
4G networks currently use the USIM application to perform strong mutual authentication between the user and his / her connected devices and the network. The entity carrying the USIM application may be a removable SIM card or an embedded UICC chip. This strong mutual authentication is essential for achieving trusted services. The current security solution is a mix of edge security (device) and core (network) security.
In the future, several security frameworks may coexist, and 5G may reuse existing solutions (SE, HSM, authentication, wireless configuration, and KMS) of 4G networks and the cloud.
Standards for strong mutual authentication for 5G networks have not yet been finalized. The demand for security, privacy, and trust will be similar to 4G, and even higher as the impact of IoT business increases. The local SE in the device not only protects network access but also supports security services such as emergency call management and IoT virtual networks